Attorney, and Mediator, William Holland Thomas [WIL-USDI] (1805-1893)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Holland_Thomas

​​Adopted son of Yonaguska, Quallatown Civil Chief (The only white man to serve as a Cherokee Chief).  

Colonel- Thomas Legion of Cherokee Confederate Soldiers, The 69th North Carolina Regiment


"At a time when North Carolina state law forbade Indian ownership of real estate, William Holland Thomas bought, in his own name, a tract estimated to contain 50,000 acres on Oconaluftee river and Soco creek, and known as the Qualla boundary, together with a number of individual tracts outside the boundary....  For the better protection of the Indians the lands were made inalienable except by assent of the council and upon the approval of the President of the United States.  The titles and boundaries having been adjusted, the Indian Office assumed regular supervision of East Cherokee affairs." 


(Qualla Boundary is not a Reservation. The lands are owned by the East Cherokee,--now known as the Eastern Band of The Cherokee Nation--but are held in trust by the Indian Office--now known as the Bureau of Indian Affairs.)

Birth Certificate

“Colored: …Include all Indians with any trace of African ancestry, if living off reservation, and with more than 1/32 of African ancestry…”   (1866 Amendment of 1705 Virginia "Degree of Blood" Law.  Colony after colony, and state after state, followed Virginia's example.)
more information on “Blood Quantum” below;

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blood_quantum_laws  

“Indian by Identity; A look inside Tribal Enrollment”  www.americanindiansource.com
“Blood Quantum; A relic of Racism and Termination”  http://www.weyanoke.org/reading/jdf-BloodQuantum.html


http://www.npr.org/2011/03/31/134421470/native-american-intermarriage-puts-benefits-at-risk


"Federal Blood Quantum"  http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=955032

 

"DNA does not determine Native ancestry"  http://www.ipcb.org/publications/briefing_papers/files/identity.html


  
Also,
*The Adena & Hopewell Cultures built the effigy mounds thought to be representations of spirit beings and animals.

*The Mississippian Cultures built temple mounds, large pyramid like earth mounds, upon which they erected religious buildings for worship.
*Christoforo Columbo, aka Christopher Columbus, did not "discover" an empty, uninhabited, land.
*Culture is a complex set of values, beliefs, attitudes, mores, and traditions.
*The U.S. government often treated all Native People as though they were one Native Tribe.  Native Tribes were grouped into geographic regions called "culture areas."  There are 10 Culture Areas in North America.


Also,

*Individual Indian People use many different terms to identify themselves.

When in doubt, ask.


*Many Indians, governments, agencies, ect., use the word "American" to distinguish (American) Indians from East Indians, West Indians, ect.


*American Indians are members of a Tribe, and that is their primary way of identifying themselves.


*Each Tribe has an account of their creation.


*The scientific community believes that the American Indian came across the Bering Straight from Asia.  Other theories hold that the American Indian came from Europe, Africa, or continents now lost.


*The Hohokams brought water to the desert Southwest via a vast network of canals, some of which are in use to this day.


*The Anasazi, who are probably the ancestors of the Pueblo Tribes, built the cliff dwellings and large apartment complexes in the Southwest.




"One of the first acts of the Continental Congress was the creation, in 1775, of three departments of Indian Affairs; northern, central, and southern.  The first department commissioners were Benjamin Franklin and Patrick Henry.  Their job was to negotiate treaties with tribes and obtain tribal neutrality in the coming Revolutionary War.

'11 March 1824 Secretary of War John C. Calhoun created what he called the Bureau of Indian Affairs without authorization from the Congress."

For a complete history on the Indian Affairs Department "From War to Self-Determination" click on:

http://www.americansc.org.uk/Online/indians.htm


 









Military Leader and Statesman Major Ridge (1771-1839)













Businessman and Political leader Chief John Ross (1790-1866)




















There are at least 17 Cherokee Rolls.  The Eastern Band of the Cherokee Nation accepts the 1924 Baker Roll as its base roll.  The Cherokee Nation accepts the 1898 – 1914 Dawes Roll as its base roll.  

*If you are not on these [2] rolls, you are not eligible for enrollment in the above [2] Federally recognized Cherokee Tribes.

Eastern Cherokee:

1817 Reservation Rolls

1817-1835 Emigration Rolls

1835 Henderson Roll

1848 Mullay Roll

1851 Siler Roll

1852 Chapman Roll

1869 Swetland Roll

1883 Hester Roll

1908 Churchill Roll

1909 Guion Miller East Roll

*1924 Baker Roll--base roll for North Carolina Cherokee (Qualla Boundary) 

1/16 Blood Quantum required in addition to (legal) proof of ancestry to an immediate relative on the 1924 Baker Roll.


United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians

*1898-1914 Dawes Roll

*1949 United Keetoowah Band Base Roll

At least 1/2 Blood Quantum required in addition to (legal) proof of ancestry to an immediate relative on the 2 base rolls.


Western Cherokee:

1851 Old Settler Roll

1852 Drennen Roll

*1898-1914 Dawes Roll--base roll for Oklahoma Cherokee Reservation

1909 Guion Miller West Roll